The Paris Agreement of the UNFCCC at COP 21 on climate change action opened new windows of opportunity to address both adaptation and mitigation of climate impacts in the rural space of developing countries. The outcomes of COP 22 in Marrakech brought the operationalisation of the Paris Agreement several steps further. Breakthrough was achieved at COP 23 under the Fijian Presidency: the adoption by the countries of an agreement on agriculture to address climate change and food security. The agreement is the first substantive outcome and COP decision in the history of UNFCCC processes on agriculture after negotiations that lasted more than six years. It establishes the Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA) to develop and implement new strategies for adaptation and mitigation within the agriculture sector, that will help reduce emissions from the sector as well as build its resilience to the effects of climate change. Parties also set out a road map of work under the KJWA, including six workshops to be held sequentially up until COP 26 (November 2020).
At COP 24, the KJWA’s role was clarified as a partnership between the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, which will focus on addressing approaches to food security, the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change, and how to mitigate agriculture’s contribution to climate change. The KJWA held an in-session workshop at COP 25 on improved nutrient use and manure management towards sustainable and resilient agricultural systems. The workshop helped Parties to advance the consideration of issues as well as identify the key elements and potential modalities for implementation relating to improved nutrient use and manure management towards sustainable and resilient agricultural systems.